Removing a tumor from an organ can be a challenge when it's located in a hard to reach spot surrounded by fragile tissue, such as in the retroperitoneal space. Surgeons typically review CT scans prior to the operation, planning what approach they'll take in their minds. Now researchers at Kobe University in Japan are offering surgeons 3D-printed recreations of their patients' own kidneys, including the tumor and surrounding vasculature, to analyze and practice on.
The team uses pre-op CT scans to create 3D models of the kidneys, which are then transferred to the printer. The kidney is then printed out of two different materials so that the tumor and vasculature stand out from the rest of the organ. This allows the surgeons to initially see the tumor and vessels that will be much harder to spot during actual surgery.
Here's video of a printed kidney being worked on using a da Vinci surgical robot:
The boy, who is from Santa Clara, Calif., says he went to the airport following an argument with his family. It was originally reported the boy is 16; ABC News confirmed the boy is 15.
Many skeptics were questioning whether the incident was even possible. The FBI says there is security footage from the Mineta San Jose International Airport that verified the boy hopped over fence, walked toward Hawaiian Airlines Flight 45, and crawled into the wheel well Sunday morning.
The boy allegedly told investigators he lost consciousness when the plane took off. He then allegedly rode in the tiny cramped compartment for five hours.
After the plane landed in Maui, he regained consciousness and emerged to a dumbfounded ground crew virtually unharmed.
"You're talking about altitudes that are well above the altitude of Mount Everest and temperatures that can reach 40 degrees below zero," said aviation analyst Peter Forman. "A lot of people would only have useful consciousness for a minute or two up at that altitude. For somebody to survive multiple hours with that lack of oxygen and that cold is just miraculous. I've never heard of anything like that before."
Maui Airport says it has video of him crawling out of the left main gear area.